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1 Magnetic configuration effects on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator 2018-05-23             

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Magnetic configuration effects on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

Magnetic configuration effects on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0141-9

Results from the first experimental campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator demonstrate that its magnetic-field design grants good control of parasitic plasma currents, leading to long energy confinement times.

2 Quantum simulation and spectroscopy of entanglement Hamiltonians 2018-05-23             

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Quantum simulation and spectroscopy of entanglement Hamiltonians

Quantum simulation and spectroscopy of entanglement Hamiltonians, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0151-7

The entanglement spectrum of a many-body quantum system encodes several of its properties. The construction of an artificial Hamiltonian that encodes the spectrum offers the possibility to probe it via quantum simulation or spectroscopy.

3 Higgs mode in a strongly interacting fermionic superfluid 2018-05-23             

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Higgs mode in a strongly interacting fermionic superfluid

Higgs mode in a strongly interacting fermionic superfluid, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0128-6

An off-resonant radiofrequency modulation scheme applied to a strongly interacting superfluid Fermi gas reveals the presence of a Higgs mode — an oscillation of the amplitude of the superconducting order parameter.

4 A hot debut 2018-05-23             

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A hot debut

A hot debut, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0158-0

The first campaign of the largest stellarator ever built, Wendelstein 7-X, has been successful, achieving high electron temperatures and minimal self-generated plasma current. This is very encouraging for future long-pulse, full-power operation.

5 Author Correction: Geometric constraints during epithelial jamming 2018-05-20             

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Author Correction: Geometric constraints during epithelial jamming

Author Correction: Geometric constraints during epithelial jamming, Published online: 18 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0168-y

Author Correction: Geometric constraints during epithelial jamming

6 Unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress engenders immune-resistant, latent pancreatic cancer metastases 2018-05-19             

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The majority of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) develop metastatic disease after resection of their primary tumor. We found that livers from patients and mice with PDA harbor single, disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) lacking expression of cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). We created a mouse model to determine how these DCCs develop. Intra-portal injection of immunogenic PDA cells into pre-immunized mice seeded livers only with single, non-replicating DCCs that were CK19 and MHCI. The DCCs exhibited an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response but, paradoxically lacked both inositol-requiring enzyme 1α activation and expression of the spliced form of transcription factor XBP1 (XBP1s). Inducible expression of XBP1s in DCCs, in combination with T cell-depletion, stimulated the outgrowth of macro-metastatic lesions that expressed CK19 and MHCI. Thus, unresolved ER stress enables DCCs to escape immunity and establish latent metastases.

7 Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in Southeast Asian prehistory 2018-05-19             

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Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100–1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Vietnam exhibit a mixture of East Asian (southern Chinese agriculturalist) and deeply diverged eastern Eurasian (hunter-gatherer) ancestry characteristic of Austroasiatic speakers, with similar ancestry as far south as Indonesia providing evidence for an expansive initial spread of Austroasiatic languages. By the Bronze Age, in a parallel pattern to Europe, sites in Vietnam and Myanmar show close connections to present-day majority groups, reflecting substantial additional influxes of migrants.

8 Plants send small RNAs in extracellular vesicles to fungal pathogen to silence virulence genes 2018-05-19             

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Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens/pests, is still unknown. Here we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells. Transferred host sRNAs induce silencing of fungal genes critical for pathogenicity. Thus, Arabidopsis has adapted exosome-mediated cross-kingdom RNA interference as part of its immune responses during the evolutionary arms race with the pathogen.

9 Notch ligand Dll1 mediates cross-talk between mammary stem cells and the macrophageal niche 2018-05-19             

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The stem cell niche is a specialized environment that dictates stem cell function during development and homeostasis. Here, we show that Dll1, a Notch pathway ligand, is enriched in mammary gland stem cells (MaSCs) and mediates critical interactions with stromal macrophages in the surrounding niche. Conditional deletion of Dll1 reduced the number of MaSCs and impaired ductal morphogenesis in the mammary gland. Moreover, MaSC-expressed Dll1 activates Notch signaling in stromal macrophages, increasing their expression of Wnt family ligands such as Wnt3, Wnt10A, and Wnt16, thereby initiating a feed back loop that promotes the function of Dll1+ MaSCs. Together, these findings reveal functionally important cross-talk between MaSCs and their macrophageal niche through Dll1/Notch-mediated signaling.

10 Ferroelectric quantum Hall phase revealed by visualizing Landau level wavefunction interference 2018-05-16             

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Ferroelectric quantum Hall phase revealed by visualizing Landau level wavefunction interference

Ferroelectric quantum Hall phase revealed by visualizing Landau level wavefunction interference, Published online: 14 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0148-2

A phase of strongly interacting electrons that has a spontaneous dipole moment is seen for the first time using an approach that images the electron's wavefunction through interference at an impurity.

 
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