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1 Dynamic force patterns promote collective cell movements during embryonic wound repair 2018-04-24             

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Dynamic force patterns promote collective cell movements during embryonic wound repair

Dynamic force patterns promote collective cell movements during embryonic wound repair, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0111-2

The motor proteins and contractile forces involved in wound closure are both shown to be heterogeneously distributed around a wound. Theory suggests that this heterogeneity speeds up wound closure, as long as the proteins are mechanically regulated.

2 On-demand quantum state transfer and entanglement between remote microwave cavity memories 2018-04-24             

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On-demand quantum state transfer and entanglement between remote microwave cavity memories

On-demand quantum state transfer and entanglement between remote microwave cavity memories, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0115-y

Sending quantum states as shaped microwave photonic wavepackets realizes on-demand, high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement between two superconducting cavity quantum memories.

3 Characterizing quantum supremacy in near-term devices 2018-04-24             

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Characterizing quantum supremacy in near-term devices

Characterizing quantum supremacy in near-term devices, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0124-x

As a benchmark for the development of a future quantum computer, sampling from random quantum circuits is suggested as a task that will lead to quantum supremacy—a calculation that cannot be carried out classically.

4 Quantum supremacy, here we come 2018-04-24             

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Quantum supremacy, here we come

Quantum supremacy, here we come, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0131-y

It’s still unclear which problems can be solved by near-term quantum computers that are beyond the reach of their classical counterparts. A new analysis makes a practical assessment of how sampling the output of a quantum circuit leaves supercomputers in the dust.

5 Author Correction: Quantum Landauer erasure with a molecular nanomagnet 2018-04-21             

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Author Correction: Quantum Landauer erasure with a molecular nanomagnet

Author Correction: Quantum Landauer erasure with a molecular nanomagnet, Published online: 20 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0140-x

Author Correction: Quantum Landauer erasure with a molecular nanomagnet

6 Rapid sea level rise in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth 2018-04-20             

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Earth’s most severe climate changes occurred during global-scale snowball-Earth glaciations, which profoundly altered Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere. Extreme rates of glacio-eustatic sea-level rise are a fundamental prediction of the snowball Earth hypothesis, but supporting geologic evidence is lacking. We use paleohydraulic analysis of wave ripples and tidal laminae of the Elatina Formation, Australia — deposited following the Marinoan glaciation ca. 635Ma — to show that water depths of 9–16m remained nearly constant for ~100yrs throughout 27m of sediment accumulation. This accumulation rate was too great to have been accommodated by subsidence, and instead indicates an extraordinarily rapid rate of sea-level rise (0.2–0.27m/yr). Our results substantiate a fundamental prediction of snowball Earth models of rapid deglaciation during the early transition to a super-greenhouse climate.

7 Cell type atlas and lineage tree of a whole complex animal by single-cell transcriptomics 2018-04-20             

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Flatworms of the species Schmidtea mediterranea are immortal—adult animals contain a large pool of pluripotent stem cells that continuously differentiate to all adult cell types. Therefore, single-cell transcriptome profiling of adult animals should reveal mature and progenitor cells. By combining perturbation experiments, gene expression analysis, a computational method that predicts future cell states from the transcriptional changes, and a lineage reconstruction method, we placed all major cell types onto a single lineage tree that connects all cells to a single stem cell compartment. We characterize gene expression changes during differentiation and discover cell types important for regeneration. Our results demonstrate the importance of single-cell transcriptome analysis for mapping and reconstructing fundamental processes of developmental and regenerative biology at high resolution.

8 Cell type transcriptome atlas for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea 2018-04-20             

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The transcriptome of a cell dictates its unique cell-type biology. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptomes for essentially every cell type of a complete animal: the regenerative planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarians contain a diverse array of cell types, possess lineage progenitors for differentiated cells (including pluripotent stem cells), and constitutively express positional information, making them ideal for this undertaking. We generated data for 66,783 cells, defining transcriptomes for known and many previously unknown planarian cell types and for putative transition states between stem and differentiated cells. We also uncovered regionally expressed genes in muscle, which harbors positional information. Identifying the transcriptomes for potentially all cell types for many organisms should be readily attainable and is a powerful new approach to metazoan biology.

9 Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes 2018-04-20             

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To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the "minor" parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human and archaic admixture. These results support models in which ancestry from the minor parental species is more likely to persist when rapidly uncoupled from alleles that are deleterious in hybrids. Our analyses further indicate that selection on swordtail hybrids stems predominantly from deleterious combinations of epistatically interacting alleles.

10 Flexo-photovoltaic effect 2018-04-20             

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It is highly desirable to discover photovoltaic mechanisms that enable a higher efficiency of solar cells. Here, we report that the bulk photovoltaic effect, which is free from the thermodynamic Shockley-Queisser limit but usually manifested only in noncentrosymmetric (piezoelectric or ferroelectric) materials, can be realized in any semiconductor, including silicon, by mediation of flexoelectric effect. We introduce strain gradients using either an atomic force microscope or a micron-scale indentation system, creating giant photovoltaic currents from centrosymmetric single crystals of SrTiO3, TiO2, and Si. This strain-gradient-induced bulk photovoltaic effect, which we call the flexo-photovoltaic effect, functions in the absence of a p-n junction. This finding may extend present solar cell technologies by boosting the solar energy conversion efficiency from a wide pool of established semiconductors.

 
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