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1 Direct observation of ion acceleration from a beam-driven wave in a magnetic fusion experiment 2019-01-18             

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Direct observation of ion acceleration from a beam-driven wave in a magnetic fusion experiment

Direct observation of ion acceleration from a beam-driven wave in a magnetic fusion experiment, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0389-0

A major challenge for achieving useful thermonuclear fusion regimes is heating plasma to reactive temperature conditions. It is demonstrated experimentally how energetic ions, generated via neutral beam injection, can be exploited for this process.

2 Topological marker currents in Chern insulators 2019-01-18             

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Topological marker currents in Chern insulators

Topological marker currents in Chern insulators, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0390-7

While topological states are often characterized by their global properties related to the topological invariants, the introduced real-space topological markers provide new insights to these states.

3 Publisher Correction: High-harmonic generation from solids 2019-01-18             

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Publisher Correction: High-harmonic generation from solids

Publisher Correction: High-harmonic generation from solids, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0421-z

Publisher Correction: High-harmonic generation from solids

4 Quantum interference in second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe2 2019-01-12             

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Quantum interference in second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe2

Quantum interference in second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe<sub>2</sub>, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0384-5

Quantum interference between electronic pathways is generally difficult to observe in solid-state systems. Such interference is, however, now characterized in the second-harmonic generation from transition metal dichalcogenides, even at room temperature.

5 Recognition of the amyloid precursor protein by human {gamma}-secretase 2019-01-12             

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Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the intramembrane protease -secretase is linked to Alzheimer’s disease. We report an atomic structure of human -secretase in complex with a transmembrane APP fragment at 2.6-Å resolution. The transmembrane helix (TM) of APP closely interacts with five surrounding TMs of PS1 (the catalytic subunit of -secretase). A hybrid β-sheet, which is formed by a β-strand from APP and two β-strands from PS1, guides -secretase to the scissile peptide bond of APP between its TM and β-strand. Residues at the interface between PS1 and APP are heavily targeted by recurring mutations from AD patients. This structure, together with that of -secretase bound to Notch, reveal contrasting features of substrate binding, which may be exploited toward design of substrate-specific inhibitors.

6 A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole 2019-01-12             

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The tidal forces close to massive black holes can rip apart stars that come too close to them. As the resulting stellar debris spirals toward the black hole, it heats up and emits x-rays. We report observations of a stable 131-s x-ray quasi-periodic oscillation from the tidal disruption event ASASSN-14li. Assuming the black hole mass indicated by host galaxy scaling relations, this implies that (i) the periodicity originates from close to the event horizon, and (ii) the black hole is rapidly spinning. Our findings demonstrate that tidal disruption events can generate quasi-periodic oscillations which encode information about the physical properties of their black holes.

7 Highly efficient double ionization of mixed alkali dimers by intermolecular Coulombic decay 2019-01-12             

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Highly efficient double ionization of mixed alkali dimers by intermolecular Coulombic decay

Highly efficient double ionization of mixed alkali dimers by intermolecular Coulombic decay, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0376-5

Using alkali metal dimers attached to helium droplets, a new decay mechanism for intermolecular Coulombic decay is demonstrated. The process leads to previously unresolved double ionization for excitation energies exceeding double ionization energies.

8 H3K9me3-heterochromatin loss at protein-coding genes enables developmental lineage specification 2019-01-07             

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Gene silencing by chromatin compaction is integral to establishing and maintaining cell fates. H3K9me3-marked heterochromatin is reduced in embryonic stem cells compared to differentiated cells. However, the establishment and dynamics of closed regions of chromatin at protein coding genes, in embryologic development, remain elusive. We developed an antibody-independent method to isolate and map compacted heterochromatin from low cell number samples. We discovered high levels of compacted heterochromatin, H3K9me3-decorated, at protein coding genes in early, uncommitted cells at the germ layer stage, undergoing profound rearrangements and reduction upon differentiation, concomitant with cell type-specific gene expression. Perturbation of the three H3K9me3-related methyltransferases revealed a pivotal role for H3K9me3 heterochromatin during lineage commitment at the onset of organogenesis and for lineage fidelity maintenance.

9 Dark energy in doubt 2019-01-03             

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Dark energy in doubt

Dark energy in doubt, Published online: 02 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0398-z

Dark energy in doubt

10 Biological transitions 2019-01-03             

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Biological transitions

Biological transitions, Published online: 02 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0393-4

Biological transitions

 
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