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1 Wavelength-scale errors in optical localization due to spin–orbit coupling of light 2018-10-17             

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Wavelength-scale errors in optical localization due to spin–orbit coupling of light

Wavelength-scale errors in optical localization due to spin–orbit coupling of light, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0301-y

The spin–orbit coupling of light leads to systematic wavelength-scale errors in the measurement of the position of emitters of elliptically polarized light.

2 Evidence for topological defects in a photoinduced phase transition 2018-10-17             

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Evidence for topological defects in a photoinduced phase transition

Evidence for topological defects in a photoinduced phase transition, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0311-9

Three different ultrafast probes investigate a non-adiabatic phase transition and find substantial evidence of topological defects inhibiting the reformation of the equilibrium phase.

3 Giant topological Hall effect in correlated oxide thin films 2018-10-17             

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Giant topological Hall effect in correlated oxide thin films

Giant topological Hall effect in correlated oxide thin films, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0307-5

A strong Hall effect is observed in a material with spin textures and strong electron correlations. This hints that correlation effects can amplify real-space topological spin transport.

4 Excess resistivity in graphene superlattices caused by umklapp electron–electron scattering 2018-10-17             

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Excess resistivity in graphene superlattices caused by umklapp electron–electron scattering

Excess resistivity in graphene superlattices caused by umklapp electron–electron scattering, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0278-6

An increase in electrical resistance caused by the fundamental process of electrons scattering off of each other (umklapp scattering) is observed in graphene superlattice devices. This will limit the electrical properties of such devices.

5 Publisher Correction: Quantum mechanics: An inconsistent friend 2018-10-17             

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Publisher Correction: Quantum mechanics: An inconsistent friend

Publisher Correction: Quantum mechanics: An inconsistent friend, Published online: 12 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0338-y

Publisher Correction: Quantum mechanics: An inconsistent friend

6 Substrate-engaged 26S proteasome structures reveal mechanisms for ATP-hydrolysis-driven translocation 2018-10-13             

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The 26S proteasome is the primary eukaryotic degradation machine and thus critically involved in numerous cellular processes. The hetero-hexameric ATPase motor of the proteasome unfolds and translocates targeted protein substrates into the open gate of a proteolytic core, while a proteasomal deubiquitinase concomitantly removes substrate-attached ubiquitin chains. However, the mechanisms by which ATP hydrolysis drives the conformational changes responsible for these processes have remained elusive. Here we present the cryo-EM structures of four distinct conformational states of the actively ATP-hydrolyzing, substrate-engaged 26S proteasome. These structures reveal how mechanical substrate translocation accelerates deubiquitination, and how ATP-binding, hydrolysis, and phosphate-release events are coordinated within the AAA+ motor to induce conformational changes and propel the substrate through the central pore.

7 Controlled crack propagation for atomic precision handling of wafer-scale two-dimensional materials 2018-10-13             

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Although flakes of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures at micrometer scale can be formed with adhesive-tape methods, isolation of 2D flakes into monolayers is extremely time-consuming as it is a trial-and-error process. Controlling the number of 2D layers through direct growth also presents difficulty because of the high nucleation barrier on 2D materials. We demonstrate a layer-resolved 2D material splitting technique that permits the high-throughput production of multiple monolayers of wafer-scale (5 centimeter diameter) 2D materials by splitting single stacks of thick 2D materials grown on a single wafer. Wafer-scale uniformity of h-BN, WS2, WSe2, MoS2, and MoSe2 monolayers was verified by photoluminescence (PL) response and by substantial retention of electronic conductivity. We fabricated wafer-scale van der Waals heterostructures, including field-effect transistors, with single-atom thickness resolution.

8 Methylammonium-free, high-performance and stable perovskite solar cells on a planar architecture 2018-10-13             

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Currently, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with high performances >20% contain Br, causing a suboptimal bandgap, and the thermally unstable methylammonium (MA) molecule. Avoiding Br and especially MA can, therefore, result in more optimal bandgaps and stable perovskites. We show that inorganic cation tuning, using Rb and Cs, enables highly crystalline formamidinium-based perovskites without Br or MA. On a conventional, planar device architecture, using polymeric interlayers at the electron and hole transporting interface, we demonstrate an efficiency of 20.35% (stabilized), one of the highest for MA-free perovskites, with a drastically improved stability reached without the stabilizing influence of mesoporous interlayers. The perovskite is not heated beyond 100°C. Going MA-free is a new direction for perovskites that are inherently stable and compatible with tandems or flexible substrates which are the main routes commercializing PSCs.

9 In vivo modeling of human neuron dynamics and Down syndrome 2018-10-13             

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Harnessing the potential of human stem cells for modelling the physiology and diseases of cortical circuitry requires monitoring cellular dynamics in vivo. Here, we show that human iPSC–derived cortical neurons transplanted in the adult mouse cortex consistently organized in large (up to ~100 mm3) vascularized neuron-glia territories with complex cytoarchitecture. Longitudinal imaging of >4000 grafted developing human neurons revealed that neuronal arbors refined via branch-specific retraction; human synaptic networks substantially restructured over 4 months, with balanced rates of synapse formation and elimination; and oscillatory population activity mirrored the patterns of fetal neural networks. Finally, we found increased synaptic stability and reduced oscillations in transplants from two individuals with Down syndrome, demonstrating the potential of in vivo imaging in human tissue grafts for patient-specific modelling of cortical development, physiology, and pathogenesis.

10 Identity inference of genomic data using long-range familial searches 2018-10-13             

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Consumer genomics databases have reached the scale of millions of individuals. Recently, law enforcement authorities have exploited some of these databases to identify suspects via distant familial relatives. Using genomic data of 1.28 million individuals tested with consumer genomics, we investigated the power of this technique. We project that about 60% of the searches for individuals of European-descent will result in a third cousin or closer match, which can allow their identification using demographic identifiers. Moreover, the technique could implicate nearly any US-individual of European-descent in the near future. We demonstrate that the technique can also identify research participants of a public sequencing project. Based on these results, we propose a potential mitigation strategy and policy implications to human subject research.

 
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